Section Two: Marketing


As a business person, you want customers who are happy with your product or service. You want them to keep coming back to you with their needs or problems.

This section will get you thinking about your customer and your product or service, and how you might promote and distribute your product or service.


What is Marketing?

Many companies develop a product or service, then look for someone to buy it. A better approach is to find an unfilled need in the marketplace, then design a product or service to fill it.

The process by which you identify the unfilled needs or problems of your customers, then design a product or service to meet these needs, is called marketing.


Why You Need Marketing

Markets have become increasingly competitive. The process that ends in a sale has become more elaborate and requires strategy and skill.


Effective Marketing:

Educates consumers
Generates new attitudes towards your company and your product or service
Stimulates new ideas for using your product or service
Creates a demand for your product or service

Components of Marketing

Marketing involves an exchange between you and your customer. In order for this exchange to be of value, you should always keep the following four components of marketing in mind:

Your customer
Your product or service
Your marketing tools
Your method of distribution

Know Your Customer

Customer focused marketing is critical to the success of your business. Try to focus on the specific problems faced by your target customer rather than on your capabilities. Remember, your goal is to meet the needs of your customer.

You will want to evaluate your customer’s current situation, identify needs or opportunities, and then select and develop solutions that will enhance business development.


Keep Your Customer

Most people think of marketing only in terms of attracting new customers. Existing customers are just as valuable because they:

Provide all of your current revenue
Hopefully will provide tomorrow’s revenue as well
Represent your largest source of referral
Cost less to communicate with than prospective customers

What is Your Product or Service?

You can’t be all things to all people. Therefore, you should be very clear in your own mind what it is you are able to offer to your customers.

You must understand every aspect of your product or service.
What is your product or service?
What resources do you depend on?
How can your product or service benefit your customer?

Marketing Tools

Marketing tools will help you get a message about your product or service out to your customers. In other words, these tools help you to promote your product or service.

Some marketing tools available to you include:
Public relations
Direct mail
Sales promotion
Speeches/Guest lectures

Managing Your Marketing Tools

A successful marketing program integrates marketing tools effectively. It’s wise to use a variety of marketing tools rather than depending on only one tool, as each tool builds on the effectiveness of the others.

Table 2: Examples of Marketing Tools
Marketing Tool Purpose
Publicity Creates awareness
Advertising Focuses the message
Seminars and speaking engagements Demonstrates your expertise and informs customers
Direct Mail Calls for specific action from a targeted audience

Distribution Methods

Distribution can be viewed as links in a chain, with each performing a specialized function.

The most direct method of distribution is direct sales to the consumer.

Some distribution channels involve several organizations which play a role in the flow of goods and services from producer to ultimate user.

Three examples of distribution channels are as follows:

Producer to Consumer
Producer to Retailer to Consumer
Producer to Wholesaler to Retailer to Consumer

When selecting your channel of distribution, try to consider the following:

YOUR CONSUMER: The geographic location and needs of your potential consumer market are important. Where does the consumer want to buy, and when does the consumer want to buy.
YOUR PRODUCT: Your product’s characteristics are also very important. You will need to consider the weight and bulk, unit value, technical characteristics, amount of service it requires, its perishability and the degree to which it is standardized or custom made. Complex or highly technical products can also be sold directly from the manufacturer to the buyer.
YOUR COMPETITION: Should you use a similar channel or an entirely different one from your competitors? Similar channels are used for most target markets due to established patterns of customer shopping behaviour. Can you identify a better system of distribution, perhaps one that increases delivery time, for example?

Click on Worksheet 2.2 (Word Document)  to complete Marketing Basics.